Breast augmentation is one of the most popular plastic surgeries in the direction of mammoplasty. Breast augmentation is a complete surgical procedure. Breast augmentation surgery is performed under general anesthesia and requires careful preparation of the patient, as well as her stay at the clinic (the period varies depending on the complexity of the surgical intervention and the patient's condition). Currently, several methods of breast augmentation using different implants have been developed and practiced successfully. Indications for surgery are primary aplasia (absence of mammary glands), primary hypoplasia (underdevelopment of the mammary glands), involution of the mammary glands, mastectomy (surgical removal of the glands, both complete and partial).
From the history of breast augmentation
The need for breast augmentation surgery was dictated by diseases that required excision of the breast tissue, or led to deformation, asymmetry of the mammary glands in women. The first attempt at breast augmentation was made in 1889. Liquid paraffin was used as a filler (implant), which was injected into the mammary gland. In 1895, the first augmentation operation was performed with the patient's own tissues (in this case, a lipoma that was removed from the patient's thigh). The unsatisfactory results of the operations carried out motivated a new search for alternative materials. Thus, throughout history, doctors have used glass balls, foam, sponges, polyurethane, ivory and many other materials. The introduction of these materials led to the development of inflammatory processes in the tissues of the mammary glands, infections, tissue necrosis and rejection of implanted materials.
Only in the sixties of the last century, for the first time in the medical practice of breast augmentation, silicone implants were used, which are the prototypes of breast implants that are used in modern plastic surgery. The shell of the first implants allowed the filling molecules to pass, which led to the development of aseptic inflammation in patients, and the smooth surface of the implant led to the development of capsular contracture.
In the 1980s, scientists raised the hypothesis that the used silicone breast implants cause the development of breast cancer. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted several studies without finding confirmation or refutation of this hypothesis. Modern breast implants are totally safe for the health of patients and innovative technologies allow to recreate the natural relief, shape and tactile sensations when touching an enlarged breast.
Breast augmentation methods. Non-surgical techniques. Implants
There are two main methods of breast augmentation: surgery and non-surgical practices.
The surgical methods of breast augmentation differ in the type of breast access:
- Dissection of the tissues in the fold(in the natural fold line), which is more convenient for the surgeon, providing greater access to the tissues, and is preferable for the patient, as thescar will be hidden in the fold;
- Dissection of the tissues around the areola.It is assumed that the scar is less visible in the areola area, however, this technique carries a risk of injury and healing of the lactiferous ducts, which interferesin natural lactation during breastfeeding;
- Axillary approach- dissection of tissue in the patient's armpit is the most dangerous method of breast augmentation. The main advantage of the technique is the complete absence of scars on the mammary glands.
According to the implant placement method, a distinction is made between placing implants directly under the breast and under the pectoral muscle. Recently, plastic surgeons have been talking about another technique for placing a breast implant under the pectoralis muscle fascia, which is actually a placement under the breast.
Non-surgical breast augmentation techniques involve complex physical exercises, dietary supplements, hormonal drugs (mild breast augmentation is one of the side effects of some groups of medications). It is noteworthy that physical training is ineffective, as it involves the pectoral musculature. The mammary gland itself does not contain muscle tissue. Dietary supplements and hormonal drugs provide only a slight temporary enlargement of the breasts.
Modern implants are distinguished by their shape (round, drop-shaped), surface texture (smooth and ribbed texture) and also by filling (saline, gel, hydrogel). The shape and size of the implants are selected individually, based on the natural relief of the patient's breast.
Rehabilitation period after breast augmentation
The rehabilitation period after breast augmentation surgery is characterized by swelling, painful sensations, bruising. In the first 14 days after the operation, patients receive complete rest. During the first month, a specially selected compression suit must be worn. In the first three months after breast augmentation, patients should avoid physical activities, go to the pool, sauna. The final result after breast augmentation surgery can be assessed only after 9-12 months.
Breast augmentation: feedback on the operation
Before deciding on a breast augmentation operation, the revisions of which are very controversial, the patient must understand that mammoplasty is a complete operation, not a cosmetic procedure that involves certain health risks. To avoid the negative consequences of the operation, patients are urged to study the existing methods of breast augmentation surgery, the types of implants available, and also to visit the consultations of various plastic surgeons. Breast augmentation, whose evaluations are available on the global network, requires considerable experience from a plastic surgeon in this specific direction. The surgeon's error can lead to undesirable consequences in the form of asymmetry, different sizes, visible scars, as well as the development of capsular contracture, inflammation, implant rejection and damage during the operation.
Breast augmentation before and after
Many plastic surgeons offer patients to explore the portfolio, which contains a surgeon's job in breast augmentation before and after. This visual demonstration of the results allows the patient to evaluate the real possibilities of the operation. The portfolio shows pictures of patients and the results of breast augmentation before and after different angles. Computer modeling allows the desired proportions to be applied to the patient's actual physical image.